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Hydraulically fracturing a shale formation creates fissures so oil and gas can be released and collected from the shale. This process occurs during the well completion phase. Water and a proppant, like sand, make up 98-99.5% of the fracturing fluid. The proppant is used to prop open the newly-created fissures so the oil and gas can migrate to the bore hole. The remaining percentage of the fluid includes a variety of chemicals that are used to prevent friction, corrosion and scaling of the casing. The chemicals are also meant to control microorganism growth and remove drilling mud.

This map captures the reporting and disclosure regulations concerning the use of these chemicals: what must be disclosed, when disclosure must occur, who the information is disclosed to, and whether trade secrets are exempted from disclosure. The map also compares regulatory frameworks concerning the reuse, recycling, and/or disposing water used for hydraulic fracturing.

This dataset includes laws for 17 states and federal rules for lands and minerals managed by the Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the U.S. Forest Service, current as of November 25, 2015. To explore the variation in these laws, use the blue "Start Here" box below. For a summary of all of the law compiled for a specific jurisdiction, click on part of the map. 

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If you have questions, corrections, or additions, please contact Matt Samelson at

Related Resources

LawAtlas Interactive Maps: 
Air Quality:  Air Quality Laws Pertaining to Oil and Gas Development
Water Quality:  Permitting, Design, and Construction
Water Quality:  Well Drilling
Water Quality:  Well Completion
Water Quality:  Production and Operation
Water Quality:  Reclamation
Water Quantity:  Quantity

Did you know?

Laws in 17 of the 18 jurisdictions examined here require companies to disclose fracking fluid chemicals.

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Map Legend: State Included in research. Not included in research.